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2018年美国的人权纪录(2)(中英对照)

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I. Frequent Infringement on Civil Rights

一、公民权利屡遭践踏
The United States reported frequent occurrence of violent crime cases, rampant gun crimes and the abuse of power by public officers, while surveillance was unchecked and unscrupulous and press freedom was hollow.
美国暴力犯罪案件频发,涉枪犯罪猖獗,公职人员滥用职权,监听活动肆无忌惮,新闻自由徒有虚名。
Serious violent crimes took place frequently. According to the 2017 edition of the FBI's annual report, Crime in the United States, released in September 2018, there were an estimated 1,247,321 violent crimes, including 17,284 incidents of murder, 135,755 rapes, 810,825 aggravated assaults, as well as 319,356 robberies. Among the cases, 72.6 percent of murders, 40.6 percent of robberies, and 26.3 percent of aggravated assaults were committed with firearms (www.ucr.fbi.gov). Chicago was named as one of the most dangerous big cities in the United States, as hundreds of people were murdered each year in recent years. On August 4 and 5, 74 people in the city were shot, and 12 of them died. Tens of thousands of young Americans fled from the cities with rampant violent crimes (Wall Street Journal, August 9, 2018).
严重暴力犯罪案件频发。美国联邦调查局2018年9月发布的《2017年美国犯罪报告》显示,全年共发生暴力犯罪案件1247321起,谋杀案件17284起、强奸案件135755起、严重暴力伤害案件810825起、抢劫案件319356起。72.6%的谋杀案件、40.6%的抢劫案件和26.3%的严重暴力伤害案件为涉枪案件。(注1)芝加哥市被称为美国“最不安全”的大城市之一,近年来每年都有几百人被谋杀。仅2018年8月4日和5日,该市就有74人遭枪击,其中12人死亡。成千上万的美国年轻人纷纷逃离严重暴力案件多发的城市。(注2)
Gun violence continued to be rampant. According to data from the Gun Violence Archive, the United States reported 57,103 incidents of gun violence, resulting in 14,717 deaths, 28,172 injuries, including casualties of 3,502 juveniles (www.gunviolencearchive.org, data recorded on February 24, 2019). On May 18, in a mass shooting in the Santa Fe High School near Houston, Texas, 17-year-old Dimitrios Pagourtzis killed 10 people and wounded more than 10 others with a shotgun and a pistol. Explosive devices were found inside the school and nearby (www.washingtonpost.com, May 19, 2018). On November 8, Marine Corps veteran Ian David Long broke into a bar in Thousand Oaks, California, fatally shooting 12 people and wounding many (www.nbcnews.com, November 9, 2018). The Huffington Post reported on December 6 that gun violence has shortened the life expectancy of Americans by nearly 2.5 years, with shooting driving down the average lifespan of African-Americans by 4.14 years, based on official data on gun deaths between2000 and 2016.
枪击案件持续高发。美国枪支暴力档案室网站发布的数据显示,2018年美国共发生涉枪案件57103件,导致14717人死亡、28172人受伤,其中未成年人死伤3502人。(注3)5月18日,得克萨斯州休斯敦市附近的圣达菲高中发生大规模枪击案,17岁的帕格瑞斯持猎枪和手枪射杀10人,打伤十余人。该校及周边还发现了爆炸装置。(注4)11月8日晚,前海军陆战队员伊恩·大卫·朗闯入加利福尼亚州千橡树市一家酒吧,持枪向人群射击,杀死12人,并致多人受伤。(注5)《赫芬顿邮报》网站12月6日报道,对美国2000年至2016年枪支致死官方数据的分析发现,枪支暴力导致美国人均预期寿命减少近2.5岁,其中非洲裔减少4.14岁。
Press freedom suffered from unprecedented blow. According to a May 2, 2018 report from the international non-governmental organization Article 19, the environment for the press in the United States has further deteriorated, with journalists occasionally being attacked, searched, arrested, intercepted at borders, and restricted from publishing public information. The U.S. government has often publicly and vehemently accused the media and journalists of making "fake news," creating an intimidating and hostile environment. Thomas Huges, executive director of Article 19, pointed out that threats to press freedom in the United States have been climbing alarmingly in recent years (www.article19.org, May 2, 2018). Newsweek published a story on August 16 that the standoff between the U.S. government and media in the past year has eroded the country's press freedom.
新闻自由遭受前所未有打击。国际非政府组织“第十九条”网站2018年5月2日报道,美国的新闻报道环境进一步恶化,记者遭到攻击、搜查、逮捕、边境拦截以及被限制发布公共信息等情况时有发生。美国政府不断公开、激烈指责媒体和记者制造“假新闻”,营造一种恐吓和敌意的氛围。该组织执行主任托马斯·休斯指出,近年来美国新闻自由受到的威胁出现了惊人的上升。(注6)《新闻周刊》网站8月16日发表文章指出,美国政府和媒体之间的对立在过去一年中侵蚀了美国的新闻自由。
The legitimate rights of interviewing by reporters were infringed. On November 7, 2018, to stop White House correspondent from CNN from asking follow-up questions, staff at the White House attempted to take the microphone away from the correspondent and revoked his press pass (uk.reuters.com, November 19, 2018). The Columbia Journalism Review reported on January 19 last year that the United States arrested journalists 34 times in 2017, nine of whom were accused of felony. The equipments of 15 journalists were confiscated, while 44 journalists suffered from personal attacks.
记者的合法采访权遭受侵犯。2018年11月7日,为阻止美国有线电视新闻网驻白宫记者的不断追问,白宫工作人员抢夺该名记者的话筒,并取消了该记者的白宫通行证。(注7)《哥伦比亚新闻评论》网站2018年1月19日报道,2017年,美国共逮捕记者34人次,其中9人被控重罪;15名记者的设备被没收,44名记者遭到人身攻击。
Religious intolerance remarks were on the rise. The Guardian reported on October 22, 2018 that during the 2018 U.S. midterm elections, anti-Muslim rhetoric increased dramatically, with report showing that conspiracy theories targeting Muslims have increasingly entered the political mainstream. "More than a third have claimed that Muslims are inherently violent or pose an imminent threat," the report found, adding that "just under a third of the candidates considered have called for Muslims to be denied basic rights or declared that Islam is not a religion."
宗教不宽容言论甚嚣尘上。英国《卫报》网站2018年10月22日报道,在2018年美国中期选举中,反穆斯林言论大幅上升。调查显示,针对穆斯林的阴谋论日益进入政治主流,“超过三分之一的候选人声称穆斯林天生暴力或构成迫在眉睫的威胁”,“将近三分之一的候选人呼吁剥夺穆斯林的基本权利或宣称伊斯兰教不是宗教”。
Online surveillance by the U.S. government infringed individual privacy. It has become a common practice by the NSA, FBI, and CIA to gather and search through American's international emails, internet calls, and chats without obtaining a warrant. The PRISM program operates around the clock, wiretapping emails, Facebook messages, Google chats, Skype calls and the like without authorization (www.aclu.org, August 22, 2018).
网络监控侵犯个人隐私权。美国国家安全局、联邦调查局和中央情报局恣意收集和搜查民众的国际电子邮件、网络电话和聊天记录已经司空见惯。未经授权的“棱镜”项目24小时运行,对电子邮件、脸谱网消息、谷歌聊天、Skype网络通话等进行监听监控。(注8)
A large number of protesters were arrested. The Chicago Tribune reported on June 28, 2018 that 575 people were arrested while protesting against the Trump administration's immigration policy in Washington D.C., most of whom were female. From September 4 to 6, U.S. Capitol Police arrested 212 people that protested Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh's confirmation hearing, and another 300-plus protestors were arrested on October 4 (chicagotribune.com, June 28, 2018; thehill.com, September 6, 2018; edition.cnn.com, October 5, 2018). Reuters reported on December 11 that 32 religious leaders and activists were arrested at the U.S. border fence in San Diego during a protest to call for an end to the detention and deportation of the Central American migrants.
大批游行示威民众遭到逮捕。《芝加哥论坛报》网站2018年6月28日报道,民众在华盛顿特区集会抗议政府移民政策时,575人被捕,多数为女性。9月4日至6日,在针对联邦最高法院大法官提名人选布雷特·卡瓦诺的抗议活动中,美国国会警察三天内逮捕了212人;10月4日又有超过300名抗议者被捕。(注9)路透社网站12月11日报道,在圣迭戈市美国边境举行的要求停止拘留和驱逐中美洲移民的抗议活动中,32名宗教领袖和社会活动家被捕。
Miscarriage of justice resulted in wrongful convictions. In May, 2018 Philip Alston, special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights for the UN, published a report saying that in the U.S. justice system, wealthy defendants are allowed to regain their freedom through bails while poor defendants have no choice but to stay in jail. The New Yorker reported on February 6 that a jury in Bronx of New York City vindicated Edward Garry's 23-year quest to clear his name, finding him not guilty of a 1995 murder (newyorker.com, February 6, 2018).
司法不公导致冤案。联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿2018年5月发布的报告指出,美国司法体系不公正,富人犯罪可通过缴纳保释金获得人身自由,而穷人只能被监禁。《纽约客》网站2月6日报道,美国纽约市布朗克斯区的爱德华·加里于1995年受谋杀罪指控含冤入狱,经过23年的不懈努力才最终洗脱罪名。(注10)
The Washington Post reported on December 19, 2018 that a man from Baltimore was wrongfully convicted of first-degree murder. During the investigation of the case, local police did not investigate his alibi or other suspects, resulting in him serving 27 years in prison.
《华盛顿邮报》网站2018年12月19日报道,美国巴尔的摩市一名男性公民被指控一级谋杀罪,在案件调查阶段,当地警方罔顾证人证言,既不调查他的不在场证明,也不调查其他嫌疑人,造成其沉冤服刑长达27年。
Public officers abusively exercised violence. According to reports released on the website of the U.S. Department of Justice on July 11 and November 8, former private prisoner transport officer Eric Scott Kindley committed, during his tenure, several armed sexual abuses or assaults on female prisoners, resulting in severe bodily and emotional harms to the victims. Several officers at the Louisiana State Penitentiary in Angola, Louisiana were found to have beaten an inmate who was handcuffed and shackled, leaving the inmate with severe injuries. They also conspired to cover up the beating (www.justice.gov). The New York Daily News reported on December 18, 2018, citing the Associated Press, that two South Florida prison guards assaulted and intimidated several young inmates, severely infringing the rights of those detained.
监管人员滥用暴力。根据美国司法部网站2018年7月11日和11月8日披露的信息,美国联邦前囚犯押送官员埃里克·斯科特·金德利在任职期间曾多次持械性虐性侵女囚,导致被害人身心受到严重伤害;路易斯安纳州安哥拉监狱多名监管人员肆意殴打毫无反抗能力的囚犯,导致犯人重伤并合谋掩盖犯罪事实。(注11)《纽约每日新闻》网站2018年12月18日援引美联社报道,南佛罗里达州的两名狱警在任职期间,殴打并恐吓多名年轻囚犯,严重侵犯被羁押者的人身权利。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
privacy ['praivəsi]

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n. 隐私,隐居,秘密

联想记忆
jury ['dʒuəri]

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n. 陪审团,评委会
adj. 临时用的

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violence ['vaiələns]

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n. 暴力,猛烈,强暴,暴行

 
jail [dʒeil]

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n. 监牢,监狱,拘留所
vt. 监禁,下狱

 
abuse [ə'bju:s,ə'bju:z]

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n. 滥用,恶习
vt. 滥用,辱骂,虐待

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hollow ['hɔləu]

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n. 洞,窟窿,山谷
adj. 空的,虚伪的,

 
pistol ['pistl]

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n. 手枪
vt. 用手枪射击

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imminent ['iminənt]

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adj. 逼近的,即将发生的

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emotional [i'məuʃənl]

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adj. 感情的,情绪的

 
hostile ['hɔstail]

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adj. 怀敌意的,敌对的

 
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